# Exponent

Also referred to as the power a base number is raised to, the exponent is the superscript value of a number written as [math]a^p[/math].

Suppose that a is a real number. When the product a × a × a × a is written as [math]a^4[/math], the number 4 is the index, or exponent.

When the exponent is a positive integer p, then [math]a^p[/math] means a × a × a ... × a where there are p occurrences of a.

It can then be shown that:

- (i) [math]a^p * a^q = a^{p+q}[/math]
- (ii) [math]\frac{a^p}{a^q} = a^{p-q}[/math], if a is not equal to 0
- (iii) [math](a^p)^q = a^{pq}[/math]
- (iv) [math](ab)^p = a^pb^p[/math]

where in (ii) it is required that [math]p \gt q[/math].

## When p is not a positive integer

- When p is a negative integer, [math]a^p[/math] means that we are notating the number [math]\large \frac{1}{a*a*a*a...}[/math] where, you guess it, the absolute value of p represents the number of occurences of a.
- When p equals zero and a does not equal zero, [math]a^p[/math] always equals one.
- When p equals -1, [math]a^p[/math] equals the reciprocal (or the multiplicative inverse) of a, that means 1/a.
- When 0 is taken to a negative power, the result will be always undefined, as that implies in division by zero.

0^{0} is sometimes considered undefined, but is normally sensibly defined as 1.