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# Square number

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From Wikipedia In mathematics, a square number, sometimes also called a perfect square, is an integer that can be written as the square of some other integer. (In other words, a number whose square root is an integer.) So for example, 9 is a square number since it can be written as 3 × 3. If rational numbers are included, then the ratio of two square integers is also a square number (e.g. 2/3 × 2/3 = 4/9).

The number m is a square number if and only if one can arrange m points in a square.

The first 50 squares A000290 are:

12 = 1
22 = 4
32 = 9
42 = 16
52 = 25
62 = 36
72 = 49
82 = 64
92 = 81
102 = 100
112 = 121
122 = 144
132 = 169
142 = 196
152 = 225
162 = 256
172 = 289
182 = 324
192 = 361
202 = 400
212 = 441
222 = 484
232 = 529
242 = 576
252 = 625
262 = 676
272 = 729
282 = 784
292 = 841
302 = 900
312 = 961
322 = 1024
332 = 1089
342 = 1156
352 = 1225
362 = 1296
372 = 1369
382 = 1444
392 = 1521
402 = 1600
412 = 1681
422 = 1764
432 = 1849
442 = 1936
452 = 2025
462 = 2116
472 = 2209
482 = 2304
492 = 2401
502 = 2500

n2 equals to the sum of the first n odd numbers ($\displaystyle{ n^2 = 2(n-1)^2-(n-2)^2+2 }$). A square number is also the sum of two consecutive triangular numbers. The sum of two consecutive square numbers is a centered square number. Every odd square is also a centered octagonal number.

An easy way to find square numbers is to find two numbers which have a mean of it, 212:20 and 22, and then multiply the two numbers together and add the square of the distance from the mean: 22x20=440+12=441. This works because of the identity

(x-y)(x+y)=x2–y2

known as the difference of two squares. Thus (21–1)(21+1)=212–12=440, if you work backwards.